Peace & Justice Centre Demands France Protect Calais Children

french-consulateOn 28 October the Edinburgh Peace and Justice Centre called on the French Consul in Edinburgh with a letter to Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve demanding France protect children who slept rough following demolition of the Calais camp.

We had delivered a letter ten days previously calling on France to protect the children before demolishing the camp but received no reply. With reports today more than one hundred children had slept rough, that many had fled the camp in fear and that more than one thousand children are now being housed in metal containers after the demolition of the camp we decided to take further action we concluded that France – and the UK – have failed in their duty to protect provide special protection to these children, and in particular to provide shelter, under the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

A copy of the letter can be read here.

We were told that the Consul was not available. That we must email to make an appointment to see the Consul General, that the function of the Consulate is only to look after the needs of French citizens living in Edinburgh. But in the end it was agreed that a copy of our letter would be forwarded to the Embassy in London.

calais-vigil-candlesWe wrote yesterday to the Home Office asking the Home Secretary to demand that France insure the protection of the children. To our surprise and delight Home Secretary Amber Rudd did exactly that this morning and it was reported that France was to provide transport for the remaining children to Reception Centres. However, independent observers on the scene including Lady Sheehan were prevented from observing the processing of the children and there remain concerns that some of the children will be taken to detention centres from which they are likely to be deported. We requested that France ensure that the processing of the children be transparent.

kids-cafe-calaisIn today’s letter we made clear that we are deeply disturbed by the failure of both the UK and France to act in good time to protect these children and that we condemn the mutual blaming that has taken place between the two governments. It is categorically unacceptable that France and the UK have played a political game with these children, many of whom have now been forced to flee and will be at greater risk of harm including possible trafficking.


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P&J Centre Message to UK & France: Protect Unaccompanied Children

Photo: Lauren Rooney

Photo: Lauren Rooney

On Tuesday 18 October we held a vigil calling for the UK to fulfil its pledge to welcome thousands of unaccompanied refugee children to the UK, especially from Calais and for France to insure protection of the children in the Calais camp. We collected about 80 signatures on letters to the Home Secretary Amber Rudd and to the French Minister of the Interior and and delivered these to the Scotland Office and the French Consul the following day.

We welcome the subsequent arrival of the first Calais children including those who are entitled to asylum here who have family in the UK and those vulnerable children without family here admitted in keeping with the Dubs amendment.

But we continue to call on the UK to honour its pledge to take in thousands of such children from across Europe and on France not to proceed with demolition of the Calais camp until all the children there have been provided with safe decent shelter.

Photo: Lauren Rooney

Photo: Lauren Rooney

After welcoming the fact that a few of these children have at last been brought to the UK the letter to Amber Rudd went on: “We are keenly aware that hundreds of others are being left behind.  These children have already undergone unimaginable hardships in fleeing mostly from war as well as natural disasters, and extreme poverty.”

Aware that 129 children went missing from Calais when the French government demolished sections of the camp earlier this month, that at least three children have died attempting to enter the UK and that the children are caught in a struggle between France and the UK over responsibility for this crisis we urged the Home Secretary to press Interior Minister Cazeneuve to delay demolition until all of the more than 1,100 unaccompanied refugee children in Calais have been appropriately accommodated.


Photo: Lauren Rooney

In writing to the Interior Minister of France we urged him to insure that all children remaining in the camp are provided with appropriate shelter and that appropriate accommodation is found for all the refugees and migrants currently living there before action is taken to demolish the camp.

We stressed that we were “particularly concerned that these children who are among the most vulnerable in the camp not be further traumatised by the imminent demolition.”

Finally we appealed to the Ministers’ “sense of humanity” saying “Please open your heart to these most vulnerable people who only seek shelter and a place to live in peace and dignity.”

save-calais-children-and-tableThe full text off the letter to Amber Rudd can be found here and to Bernard Cazeneuve can be found here.

Our banner will be hung on the railings of St Johns Church on Princes St – where it will be highly visible – for the next couple of weeks as a reminder to Edinburgh of the ongoing crisis of these refugee children.


Our vigil for Calais unaccompanied refugee children was reported in Common Space this week.

delivering-letter-to-home-secretaryThe vigil follows a meeting we organised as part of the Edinburgh World Justice Festival with 6 speakers including refugees and activists from local organisations doing refugee support. A full report on that meeting can be found here.

The Peace and Justice Centre’s briefing on “Towards Adressing the Needs of Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children” was sent to Theresa May as Home Secretary and relevant MPs, MSPs, civil servants and civil society actors and is available here.

Readers can write to Home Secretary Amber Rudd MP and French Interior Minister Bernad Cazeneuve using  the model letters and contact details here.


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Welcoming Refugees and Children P&J Centre Event Packed Out



kids-cafe-calaisThe Peace and Justice Centre’ panel discussion on Welcoming Refugees held at University of Edinburgh on 8 October had to be moved at the last moment to a larger lecture theater to accomodate the audience of two hundred, an indication of concern for this issue in Scotland.  The talk, which was part of the Edinburgh World Justice Festival, gathered voices from different civil society organisations, refugees and campaigners, who spoke about the needs and experiences of Syrian and other refugees in Scotland, Calais and Thesalonikka in Greece. Speakers included Syrian refugee Amer Scott Masri, Amadu Khan from the Welcoming Association, Gary Christie from Scottish Refugee Council, Janet Barnes from East Lothian Aid to Refugees, Matthew Naumann co-author of the EP&JC briefing on the needs of Unaccompanied Refugee children, Julia Albert – Recht who headed the British Red Cross response to the Syrian refugee crisis and Sabine Gundel from Citizens UK.   

Brian Larkin, chair of the event and coordinator of the Edinburgh Peace and Justice Centre, opened the talk presenting the speakers, their role and the activity of the centre in promoting non-violence and human rights. He also described the dramatic condition of Syrian refugee children and the need to cease hostility and prioritise the humanitarian needs of the people of Syria.

panelThe first speaker was Amer Scott Masri. Amer is a Syrian refugee himself, he has now made Scotland his forever home, although he campaigns to raise awareness on the situation in his home country. Amer was abducted when he returned from Scotland to Syria, guilt, according to the Assad regime, of having experienced democracy and liberal rights. He was then imprisoned and suffered torture and violence for two months. Amer talked harshly about the situation in his country, defining it as a “genocide against Syrian people”, he also illustrated the merciless conduct of the Assad regime, which, while claiming of defending itself from imaginary enemies, uses violence against its own people. Amer also remarked that the war in Syria, especially the actions of the Assad regime, is the root cause of two phenomena so widely treated by media all over the world: radicalisation and the refugee crisis. Syrian people have never been extremist; however, radicalisation is the result of desperation and anger for the inaction of the international community. In addition, he warned against the bias of the media, which is scaremongering the public opinion, connecting extremism and terrorism with the refugee crisis. All this going on with the inaction of “men in suits” (international leaders), who are bringing neither peace nor justice to the Syrian people.

Amer concluded his speech showing its gratitude for the kindness of Scottish people, who welcomed him and his family and are still doing much for many other refugees.dsc_0952

The second speaker was Janet Barnes, chair of East Lothian Aid for Refugees (ELAR). Through her work, she visited many refugee camps in Europe, where she could assess the dramatic living condition. With the aid of heartbreaking photos, she showed the life in the camps in Calais, Dunkirk, Idomeni and Thessalonikka

In particular, she talked about the camp in Calais, labelled “The Jungle” by refugees. Life in the camps goes on between police brutality, poor living conditions in shacks exposed to bad weather and a sort of normality recreated by refugees themselves with schools, restaurants, churches and theatres. The French government decided to demolish “The Jungle” in February 2016; however, this process resulted in burning of people’s belongings, disappearing of many refugees and the confinement of the rest in a very restricted area. Both UK and French government have implemented strict securitisation policies in the camps, through the construction of walls and fences (£200 million spent by the UK government in 2015).

Janet also talked about the work of ELAR in the camps. Along with the sending of packages and distribution of useful items, such as winter waterproof clothes and first necessity items, they supported refugees by providing 30 camping stoves in the camps, giving refugees the possibility to experience a moment of normality and familiarity, cooking around a stove that respect safety standards. Janet called for help and donation, for more information on how to help ELAR, visit the website or ELAR Facebook page.

The third speaker was Sabine Gundel, from Citizens UK. She talked about the importance of advocacy and about what ordinary people could do to pressure their politicians towards effective solutions. Refugees do not represent a problem, the problem, instead, is represented by politicians, who with strict law and regulations enhance the crisis. Advocating to change these laws is really important.

Sabine illustrated the context: according to Amnesty International’s new report, 10 countries alone, which account for less than 2.5% of world GDP, host half of the world’s refugees, while in Europe Germany took around 1 million Syrian refugees, the UK took only 20.000. Whilst governments build up walls and shut down camps, civil society is willing to help, organising in groups and associations to promote effective solutions to the crisis. Especially in regards to unaccompanied minors, the British society demands clear answers and actions. The situation of unaccompanied children refugees is dreadful: they disappear in the slowness of the process of recognition of their status and the indifference of the authority. Many unaccompanied children are 17-18 years old male, and depicted as difficult elements, they struggle to find foster homes and accommodations. However, civil organisations and ordinary people are mobilising to solve this issue: communities can organise themselves, creating foster homes, getting trained to deal with children’s needs, “pestering” local authorities and MPs with letters and mails to trigger action at local level. Sabine concluded her speech reminding that it is our duty to help refugees, it is not possible to close our eye and pretend we do not see. For further information on how to get involved with Citizens UK, visit the website.

The fourth speaker was Gary Christie, from the Scottish Refugee Council. Gary talked about the legal situation of refugees in the UK and in Scotland.From a legal perspective, the situation of Syrian refugees is delicate: they are not considered refugees under international law. The necessity to overcome this legislative hole is somehow as important as providing safety and accommodation. Gary made a comparison between what is being done by the Scottish and the UK government. At the moment, the UK government is developing policies that make a difference between “good” Syrian refugees (those who are resettled from the camps, monitored and identified) and “bad” Syrian refugees (those who reach the UK spontaneously); in addition, the new government is aiming to stratify refugee’s rights, reducing the remain leave from 5 to 3 years. The Scottish government, on the other hand, increased the refugee status and gives greater protection compared to other parts of the UK. However, it is vital, said Gary, for authorities at any level to assure rights for refugees once they get in the UK and especially grant legal representation for unaccompanied minors.

The Scottish government should keep on pressuring the UK government, and at the same time focus on integration in communities and develop national standards. As Sabine before him, Gary underlined the importance of advocacy and lobbying MPs and SPs.

For more information on the Scottish Refugee Council, visit the website.

savecalaischildren3The fifth speaker was Julia Albert-Brecht, who talked about her experience with International Medical Corps and British Red Cross in visiting refugee camps. As Sabine Gundel before her, she set the context of the refugee crisis: 13.5 million people are in need to humanitarian assistance within Syria, 4.8 refugees have been taken by neighbouring countries, such as Turkey and Lebanon. Through the visual help of photos, she illustrated the situation of refugee camps in the Middle East, highlighting the contrast between the comfort and the “normality” lived in the camp in Jordan, preferred by refugees for the possibility to move in and out of the camp, and the desolation and discomfort of the UNHCR camp, made really unpopular by its isolated position. Julia then talked about the Vulnerable Syrian Resettlement Programme, enacted by David Cameron in 2015.

The Programme aimed to take 20,000 refugees in the UK, target already achieved. Nevertheless, the Programme raised several issue about its implementation. In fact, the Programme produced isolation among refugees, allocated in different local authorities; there has been a lack of clarity on funding for support and housing and a lack of focus on community integration and involvement. In addition, in spite of some good practice shown in the UK and in Europe, councils still struggle to learn from experience and that resulted in a lack of coordinated approach. On the other hand, although refugees state a positive experience overall, a lack of clarity about their rights to travel and reach relatives is still to be addressed. Lastly, Julia talked about the Community Sponsorship Programme, an initiative for communities who wants to organise themselves in giving aid to refugees. The Programme, however, is not financed by the government, but it should be self-funded by communities themselves, it also involves a limited number of refugees.

dsc_0948The sixth speaker was Matthew Newman, researcher of the Edinburgh Peace and Justice Centre, who illustrated the findings of its report on Meeting the Needs of Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children, which is available on the Centre’s website here. 

The last speaker was Amadu Khan, from the Welcoming Association. Amadu is a refugee from Sierra Leone and he spoke about the Syrian Resettlement Programme, about its activities and goals and about what it still needs to be done for refugees. The Programme is a partnership between the Edinburgh Council, Saheliya and the Welcoming Association. The key features of the Programme are the integration and the support of refugees through the development of different activities, from English lessons and cultural integration to workshops on sustainability, volunteering and employability advice. Though the great work realised, Amadu highlighted some of the needs of the Programme: from financial resources to ESOL material and from a greater social interaction to possibility of employability for refugees. Amadu also called people to help by volunteering, advocating and lobbying, researching and donating.

For more information on the Welcoming Association and the Resettlement Programme, visit the association’s website.


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Policy paper Addresssing the Needs of Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children in Scotland

This briefing paper arises out the Edinburgh Peace and Justice Centre’s concern for the consequences of conflicts around the world, notably in Syria, which have led to large outflows of refugees, and the situation that the refugees, including children, find themselves in. It looks specifically at what can be done in Scotland to better support unaccompanied children who arrive in Scotland as asylum seekers or refugees. Read the full pdf here

In the near future, the UK Government Home Office is likely to make decisions on (1) children at risk from the Middle East and North Africa region; (2) the admission of unaccompanied child refugees from Syria and elsewhere currently within the European Union; and also (3) the dispersal within the United Kingdom of unaccompanied asylum seeking children currently living in Kent and Hillingdon (which have both seen spikes in applications in recent months). This paper sets out the context of the current refugee crisis, particularly as it relates to unaccompanied minors, and looks at the structures in place in Scotland to provide support to unaccompanied asylum seeking children. It draws two primary conclusions:

  1. The Scottish Government should be empowered, in consultation with the Home Office, to take a lead role in overseeing the resettlement of child refugees and unaccompanied asylum seeking children in Scotland as it has the capacity to understand the broad range of needs of these vulnerable children and provide for these needs more efficiently than local authorities could acting individually.


  1. The Scottish Guardianship Service (SGS), which currently supports children before their asylum claims have been processed, should be empowered by secondary legislation to also support the integration of children who arrive in Scotland with refugee status already in place, and should be provided with the financial and human resources capacity to do so.

The report includes background information about the refugee crisis, the Scottish Guardianship Service and the categories of vulnerable children who may be relocated to Scotland in the near future. It also includes recommendations to the UK Government, the Scottish Government, Scottish local authorities and civil society organisations.

The paper was compiled by Peace and Justice Centre volunteers and draws on secondary research and interviews with stakeholders and key informants from entities including the Scottish Government, the Scottish Refugee Council, the University of Bedfordshire and Scottish Faiths Action for Refugees

featured photo credit: Joe Piette CC BY-NC 2.0

Read the full pdf here :

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Human Rights Torn Down In Calais ‘Jungle’ Dismantling

News has spread this morning of continued attempts by French police to dismantle what has become known as the Calais ‘Jungle’. The camp is home to hundreds of dwellings for some 3500 refugees currently inhabiting the region. The operation began on early Monday morning when a demolition team arrived with diggers. Residents were warned they had a mere hour to relocate before their shelters would be destroyed. The Guardian has reported police had fired teargas at approximately 150 people and activists who began resisting the process and that at least three of the shelters had been set on fire.

The proposed alternative from the French Government is a biometric security protected compound with room for only 1500 refugees. Supposed security measures include the scanning of hand prints upon entry into and exit from, the compound. Such measures raise fears among the refugee population that the French government may be attempting to force refugees to claim asylum within French borders. Many of the refugees hope to make a home in the UK, shedding light on the fact that Calais remains the joint responsibility of both the French and UK governments.

Irrespective of motive, the actions taken by the French police on behalf of the government appear to be a disproportionately harsh response to what is already an incredibly delicate situation. Many volunteer groups have spoken out about the inappropriateness of the proposed solution, rightfully suggesting that this will do little to solve the root cause of this issue. Certainly, taking away the little autonomy that these displaced people have left is of grave concern from a human rights perspective. Accordingly, the Edinburgh Peace and Justice Centre would like to publicly deplore the action taken by the French government and welcome the response of humanitarian and other such groups in working towards a peaceful solution to the current situation. As previously argued in the November edition of Peace and Justice News, the UK should work towards a considerable increase in refugee intake. Any meaningful action taken by either the French or the UK government should involve a dignified and respectful dialogue with all parties, such that the global community can be rest assured that the human rights of disenfranchised groups are being sufficiently protected. Undoubtedly, the disruption caused by bulldozers and lines of riot police is a long, long way from the European human rights standards that the rest of the world has attempted to emulate.

By Zoe Cameron and Sarah MacDonald

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Safe Passage for Refugees Fleeing Wars & Persecution

Last year Italy’s Mare Nostrum operation in the Mediterranean saved 100,000 lives. But UK Home Secretary Theresa May argued that the programme encouraged “migrants” to make the perilous journey in overcrowded unseaworthy vessels and EU funding for the programme was cut.. The dramatic increase in people risking their lives this spring however proves her wrong. People make the voyage because they are desperate, not to get to Europe but to get away from the situation they are in.

By withdrawing support for Mare Nostrum the EU was responsible for the sharp increase in deaths at sea. Following the death of 900 refugees in April the EU had to be seen to act. So it tripled funding to the European border agency Frontex, decided for the first time to take military measures to destroy boats that people traffickers might use, and created a new “rapid-return programme” whereby all but 5,000 of an anticipated 200,000 “irregular migrants” who survive the journey will be sent back.

Shoring up Frontex was reported as a “search and rescue” plan. But the Frontex mission remains protecting European borders. It will continue to patrol the coastal waters off Italy and Malta while boats laden with refugees frequently get into trouble further out at sea. Indeed the Head of Frontex insisted its mission could not include search and rescue under maritime law.

Thus there remains a huge gap where more refugees are bound to lose their lives in international waters. And it is unclear how the destruction of traffickers vessels can be achieved. For a start that may require a U.N. mandate in the absence of a viable Libyan government.  Medecins Sans Frontieres said “Focusing on keeping people out by cutting their only existing routes is only going to push people fleeing for their lives to find other routes, potentially even more dangerous.”

Europe must urgently establish an operation, along the lines of Mare Nostrum, with a clear mandate to save lives as the first priority. High Commissioner Guterres wrote “We have an unambiguous legal obligation to protect” those fleeing conflict and persecution. Europe has a clear moral obligation to prevent the inevitable recurrence of these disasters. It must open safe legal routes and provide opportunities for people fleeing conflict and persecution a chance to request asylum where they are so they will be less likely to risk the crossing to Europe. Ultimately what is needed is long-term solutions, alleviating poverty and resolving conflict in the Middle East and Africa. But this will not be accomplished as long as UN Security Council member states, especially Russia, the US and the UK continue to provide weapons to repressive regimes and arm rebel groups.


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